The Spartans. In the first phase, the Archidamian War, Sparta launched repeated invasions of Attica, while Athens took advantage of its naval supremacy to raid the coast of the Peloponneseand attempt to suppress signs of unrest in its empire. Historians have traditionally divided the war into three phases. Shattering religious and cultural taboos, devastating vast swathes of countryside, and destroying whole cities, the Peloponnesian War marked the dramatic end to the fifth century BC and the golden age of Greece.[6]. During these campaigns, the Spartans under Agesilaus’s command met with numerous rebelling Greek poleis, including the Thebans. Thucydides is important because he is one of the great Greek historians. The Peloponnesian War was fought mainly between Athens and Sparta. After arriving in Sicily, Alcibiades was recalled to Athens for trial. The Athenians did not act solely from altruism: rallied on by Alcibiades, the leader of the expedition, they held visions of conquering all of Sicily. By the middle of the century, the Persians had been driven from the Aegean and forced to cede control of a vast range of territories to Athens. This hegemonic period was to be short-lived, however. The main outcome was. This period of the war was concluded in 421 BC, with the signing … Which of the following was a major cause of the Peloponnesian War? The Spartan army encouraged revolt, installing a pro-Spartan oligarchy within Athens, called the Thirty Tyrants, in 404 BCE. More battles ensued and again, the Syracusans and their allies defeated the Athenians. The trial resulted in the execution of six of Athens's top naval commanders. Athens was then victorious at the naval battle of Arginusae. The Lacedaemonians, with their neighbors the Tegeans, faced the combined armies of Argos, Athens, Mantinea, and Arcadia. According to Thucydides, the Spartans acted in this way out of fear that the Athenians would switch sides and support the helots; the offended Athenians repudiated their alliance with Sparta. A fifteen-year conflict, commonly known as the First Peloponnesian War, ensued, in which Athens fought intermittently against Sparta, Corinth, Aegina, and a number of other states. In addition, the fear of a general revolt of helots emboldened by the nearby Athenian presence drove the Spartans to action. Lysander, the Spartan admiral who commanded the Spartan fleet at Aegospotami in 405 BCE, helped to organize the Thirty Tyrants as Athens’ government for the 13 months they maintained power. Fought between the allies of Sparta and the empire of Athens, the crippling Peloponnesian War paved the way for the Macedonian takeover of Greece by Philip II of Macedon and, following that, Alexander the Great's empire. B. The longest Spartan invasion, in 430 BC, lasted just forty days. The Spartan fleet under Callicratidas lost 70 ships and the Athenians lost 25 ships. With the support of the Athenians, the Argives succeeded in forging a coalition of democratic states within the Peloponnese, including the powerful states of Mantinea and Elis. Ed. Because Lysander was also directly involved in the selection of the Thirty, these men were loyal to him over Sparta, causing King Agis and King Pausanias to agree to the abolishment of his Aegean decarchies, and eventually the restoration of democracy in Athens, which quickly curbed Lysander’s political influence. But before going into all the details, here are the main points to remember: Who Fought in the Peloponnesian War? The Peloponnesian War changed Greece in every way. On the advice of Alcibiades, they fortified Decelea, near Athens, and prevented the Athenians from making use of their land year round. 10th-century minuscule Manuscript of Thucydides's History.. In the aftermath, Athens gave amnesty to the 3,000 men who were given special treatment under the regime, with the exception of those who comprised the governing Thirty and their associated governmental officials. In the battle, the Athenians obliterated the Spartan fleet, and succeeded in re-establishing the financial basis of the Athenian Empire. by A.H. Clough. [35], The overall effect of the war in Greece proper was to replace the Athenian Empire with a Spartan empire. The rebels quickly secured the support of a Persian satrap, and Athens found itself facing the prospect of revolts throughout the empire. First, their foes were lacking in initiative. [37], "Athenian War" redirects here. Eventually Spartan kings, Agis and Pausanias, abolished these Aegean decarchies, curbing Lysander’s political influence. One of these posts was near Pylos on a tiny island called Sphacteria, where the course of the first war turned in Athens's favour. The increased opposition culminated in a revolution that ultimately overthrew the Thirty’s regime. The Athenians crushed the revolt, and peace was maintained. After additional setbacks, Nicias seemed to agree to a retreat until a bad omen, in the form of a lunar eclipse, delayed any withdrawal. At the Battle of Sybota, a small contingent of Athenian ships played a critical role in preventing a Corinthian fleet from capturing Corcyra. social studies. The delay was costly and forced the Athenians into a major sea battle in the Great Harbor of Syracuse. Sparta became the dominant city state for a while but lost the authority as leagues and alliances sprouted up around them. History. Demosthenes argued for a retreat to Athens, but Nicias at first refused. Weeks later, though, Demosthenes proved unable to finish off the Spartans. Perhaps worst of all, the nearby silver mines were totally disrupted, with as many as 20,000 Athenian slaves freed by the Spartan hoplites at Decelea. What then ensued was a period, referred to as the Pentecontaetia (the name given by Thucydides), in which Athens increasingly became in fact an empire,[8] carrying out an aggressive war against Persia and increasingly dominating other city-states. Lysander. During his kingship, Agesilaus embarked on a number of military campaigns in the eastern Aegean and Persian territories. The Corinthians were not backing down, following the war against the Corcyraeans, Corinthians spent time and money building new ships and trained rowers from the Peloponnese to fight against Corcyra. After the battle of Aegospotami, Sparta took over the Athenian empire and kept all of its tribute revenues for itself; Sparta's allies, who had made greater sacrifices for the war effort than had Sparta, got nothing.[3]. "Lysander,", Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, Kirshner, Jonathan. Lysander also managed to require Athens to recall its exiles, causing political instability within the city-state, of which Lysander took advantage to establish the oligarchy that came to be known as the Thirty Tyrants. The political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others. This war, while greater than previous skirmishes, was not entirely anomalous. The Thebans, Argives, Corinthians, and Athenians had rebelled during the Corinthian War from 395-386 BCE, and the Persians aided the Thebans, Corinthians, and Athenians against the Spartans. Sparta was busy dealing with the aftermath of an earthquake and a helot revolt. Pericles died unexpectedly. The Peloponnesian War is firstly a historical account of what happened in the war between the Peloponnesian League and the Delian League. During the Peloponnesian War, they turned on each other. The Athenian army, attempting to withdraw overland to other, more friendly Sicilian cities, was divided and defeated; the entire Athenian fleet was destroyed, and virtually the entire Athenian army was sold off into slavery. He took command of the Syracusan troops, and in a series of battles defeated the Athenian forces, and prevented them from invading the city. Early Spartan attempts to break up the coalition failed, and the leadership of the Spartan king Agis was called into question. Agesilaus II was one of two Spartan kings during the period of Spartan hegemony, and is remembered for his multiple campaigns in the eastern Aegean and Persian territories. a. Athens and Sparta were so destabilized by the war that. In this phase, Sparta, now receiving support from the Achaemenid Empire, supported rebellions in Athens's subject states in the Aegean Sea and Ionia, undermining Athens's empire, and, eventually, depriving the city of naval supremacy. This was a reactionary regime set up by Sparta. The Athenians felt obliged to assist their ally. Class, Faction and Policy 403–386 B.C., New York 2014, p. 80. Which of the following did the Spartans NOT force Athens to do? Nicias then sent word to Athens asking for reinforcements. A peace with Sparta might have been possible, but the Athenian fleet, now based on the island of Samos, refused to accept the change. He also persuaded the Athenian fleet to attack the Spartans at the battle of Cyzicus in 410. The result was a complete victory for the Spartans, which rescued their city from the brink of strategic defeat. These sanctions, known as the Megarian decree, were largely ignored by Thucydides, but some modern economic historians have noted that forbidding Megara to trade with the prosperous Athenian empire would have been disastrous for the Megarans, and have accordingly considered the decree to be a contributing factor in bringing about the war. Nonetheless, the Thirty’s regime was not met with much overt opposition for the majority of their rule, as a result of the harsh penalties placed on dissenters. With the death of Cleon and Brasidas, zealous war hawks for both nations, the Peace of Nicias was able to last for some six years. [20], At the request of the Corinthians, the Spartans summoned members of the Peloponnesian League to Sparta in 432 BC, especially those who had grievances with Athens to make their complaints to the Spartan assembly. Revolt and faction threatened in Athens itself. Join now. Both Brasidas and Cleon were killed in Athenian efforts to retake Amphipolis (see Battle of Amphipolis). What happened in Athens that led to its weakening and eventual downfall in the first Peloponnesian War? He would never again lead Athenians in battle. The Syracusan cavalry rode them down mercilessly, eventually killing or enslaving all who were left of the mighty Athenian fleet. 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